Nicotine is not addictive, but it’s responsible for releasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter related with reinforcements and enjoyment in the human brain, thus inducing addicting tendencies in humans. Nicotine is a compound present in tobacco leaf, the main component in cigarettes and is believed to result in illness and addiction in cigarette smokers, (World Health Organization (WHO)).
Nicotine mimics the activities of acetylcholine, an ever-present neurotransmitter in the main nervous system and the nerve muscle junction of skeletal muscles. Acetylcholine is responsible for excitability, that causes increase heart rate, alertness, as well reaction times, (Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 97(2):257-61.). Because acetylcholine and nicotine are chemically similar, they trigger similar cholinergic receptors in the human brain. The nicotine-acetylcholine receptors include nerve endings which release dopamine when coupled or bind with acetylcholine or nicotine. Receptors are like cups having the dimensions that will place a neurotransmitter particle, similar to acetylcholine.
The cup itself is lined with nerve endings (tips of neurons). It’s these nerve endings which release dopamine whenever the neurotransmitter acetylcholine binds together with the cup like acetylcholine receptors (cholinergic receptors). A reinforcing as well as reward phenomenon of dopamine develops because the dopamine that is emitted from the nerve endings initiates a feeling of pleasure in the individual’s brain. The reinforcement mechanism is set up once the mind is addicted to the pleasure brought on by the dopamine that’s discharged from the cholinergic receptors. It means that the brain is continually seeking to be pleasured. So, what’ll happen in the situation of cigarette smokers is the fact that they’ll continue to smoke cigarettes so the nicotine from the cigarette can induce the release of dopamine in the brain, causing them to feel happy every time they smoke a cigarette, (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, 967-975 (December 2006)).
The first time cigarette smokers smoked cigarettes there have been only a few cholinergic receptors available because the pure action of acetylcholine just needs the normal level of receptors provided by nature to do its job. But, the expansion concentration of nicotine offered sparked the regular amounts of cholinergic receptors to become desensitized to the presence of the increased number of nicotine in the cholinergic receptors. This desensitization causes the production or perhaps development and growth of further cholinergic receptors. These extra cholinergic receptors will soon become desensitized from the excess nicotine available. Such processes occur until equilibrium is arrived at. display plexiglas is reached when cigarette smokers determine the amount of cigarettes they are going to consume or even smoke in a particular day. At this time, a fixed quantity of receptors will be available for the addiction to continue. Smokers will usually say they smoke one or even 2 packs each day. They said so due to the amount of receptors available to accommodate 2 packs of cigarettes in one day.
A detrimental effect of all this is the fact that such large amounts of cholinergic receptors are hungry and available now for nicotine. So, they are able to promote dopamine to enjoyment the cigarette smoker. This’s the reason as to why cigarette smokers have an incredibly tough time quitting. The best approach therefore for a cigarette smoker to use in quitting would be to gradually scale back on the amount of cigarettes smoked in a given time interval.
In addition to the dopamine-inducing effect of nicotine, could be the speeding-up of the heart rate by nicotine each and every moment a cigarette is smoked. From a medical perspective, frequently having an artificial increase in pulse rate is not a good idea either. For starters, a constant increase in heart rate by drugs such as nicotine can cause heart disease, (WHO).
Based on the World Health Organization, tobacco use causes diseases impacting the heart and lungs , like heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cancer. Most cigarette induced cancers are lung cancers, cancers of the larynx, mouth area, and pancreas. Cigarette smoke additionally causes myocardial infarctions, peripheral vascular disease and hypertension. The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco is responsible for aproximatelly 5.4 thousand deaths in 2004 along with about hundred million deaths during the twentieth century.
In addition to the addictive effects of its on the central nervous system, cigarette smoke contains a wide variety of cancer-causing agents. They function by binding to DNA leading to many genetic mutations. Nicotine might be the main culprit which is doing the binding to DNA causing genetic mutations, which results to cancer. Nicotine is thought to interrupt the natural processes of apoptosis (programmed cell death) by binding to DNA in cells, (National Institute of Health (NIH)). Defective cells consist of other waste and junk DNA materials. When apoptosis is inhibited, natural cell death does not occur; rather, defective cells are allowed to proliferate or even grow bigger, uncontrollably. This is what happens in cancer and the main reason why cigarette smokers are more vulnerable to developing cancers.
When apoptosis is uncontrollably caused by chemicals, such as nicotine, it causes natural cells to die off. This may perhaps be what is going on within the center cells of cigarette smokers who are afflicted by coronary disease as well as could be also what is happening in the extremities of cigarette smokers, who often complain of excessive coldness in the fingers of theirs, arms, toenails, and legs, wherever blood flow is lowest.
You will find no existing studies to help this exact explanation. Nonetheless, determined by the understanding of known medical proof of apoptosis as well as the increase in death rates of cigarette smokers, this particular hypothetical reason has some credence; and will continue to have credence until proven otherwise! There’s something deadly that’s going on in cigarette smokers and nicotine is among the elements behind it.
The tar in cigarette smoke also is an agent which sucks the life from cigarette smokers. The lung of a cigarette smoker is as dark as the style of asphalt. It’s like an extreme slice of burnt pot roast. This is the reason why most cigarette smokers have trouble breathing. It’s difficult for air to pass easily down the airways of cigarette smokers. The sad thing is that it is difficult for cigarette smokers to quit. So, they continue down the road of destruction, day after day time, puffing on the silent killer–cigarette smoking.
One very important strategy to quitting smoking is smoking just one less cigarette 1 day or perhaps 1 less cigarette in a month if 1 less cigarette a day is just too high of an adjustment to the dangerous habit. If 1 normally smokes a pack of cigarettes a day, that individual should remove among the cigarettes and discard it–throw it in the trash can. Remember that the smoking of cigarettes started off slowly. No one began smoking a pack of cigarettes a day in that awful beginning phase of smoking cigarettes. Smoking just one less cigarette per a certain time frame can help eliminate the unwanted cholinergic receptors that nicotine so dearly craves.
Wellbutrin is another way for helping individuals stop smoking. Wellbutrin is an antidepressant medication used by people with depression. But, it’s very strong in helping individuals kick the deadly behavior of cigarette smoking. It may be taken while smoking, unlike some other smoking cessation agents. Wellbutrin blocks nicotine receptors and weakens the action of dopamine reuptake by neurons, (J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct; 295(1):321-7.).
Cigarette smokers who are interested in quitting need to put into action an exercise program in the schedule of theirs because the lack of nicotine in ex-cigarette smokers causes weight-gain. How do we know this? Former cigarette smokers who kicked the habit complain of gaining weight after they quit smoking. Ask any ex-cigarette smoker. One will audibly hear the same thing. Nicotine induces weight loss in smokers. This’s the reason why most cigarette smokers are skinny or slim. If a cigarette smoker is overweight while smoking cigarettes, then that individual should look for medical attention because there might be a really dangerous medical condition lurking in the shadows.